The world is in the grips of a food-tech revolution. One of the most compelling new developments is cultured meat, also known as clean, cell-based or slaughter-free meat. It’s grown from stem cells taken from a live animal without the need for slaughter.

世界正在经历一场食品技术革命。最引人注目的新发展之一是培育肉,也被称为清洁的、以细胞为基础的或无屠宰的肉。它是由不需要宰杀的活体动物的干细胞培育而成。


Despite this, the public is uncertain about cultured meat. Scientists and high-profile supporters, including investors like Bill Gates and Richard Branson, are pushing for broader adoption, but it’s difficult to sell the public on new food technology – case in point, genetically modified food.
Do people want to eat cultured meat?
In a 2017 survey of public opinion, the Sentience Institute asked a representative sample of more than a thousand Americans whether they agreed with the statement "When [cultured] foods are the same price as animal-based foods, I would prefer to eat more of these [cultured] foods and fewer animal-based foods." Less than half agreed to some degree.

尽管如此,公众对培育肉还是不太确定。科学家和包括比尔盖茨和理查德布兰森等投资者在内的知名支持者正在推动更广泛的应用,但很难向公众推销新的食品技术,例如转基因食品。
人们想要吃人工培育的肉吗?
在2017年的一项民意调查中,感知研究所(对一千多名美国人进行了抽样调查,询问他们是否同意“当(人工培育)食品与动物性食品价格相同时,我更愿意多吃这些(人工培育)食品,少吃动物性食品”的说法。不到一半的人在某种程度上同意。

Strongly disagree 13%Disagree 15%Somewhat disagree 15% No opinion 10%Somewhat agree 20% Agree 16% Strongly agree 11%

强烈反对13% 不同意15% 有点不同意15% 没有意见10% 有些同意20% 同意16% 强烈同意11%

As a moral psychologist, my research explores people’s perceptions of cultured meat, both the good and the bad. Below I discuss some of the top reasons people say they don’t want to eat cultured meat, compiled from opinion surveys, focus groups and online comments. But I’m optimistic that champions of this new technology can alleviate the public’s concerns, making a convincing case for consumers to embrace cultured meat.

作为一名道德心理学家,我的研究探索了人们对培育肉类的看法,无论是好的还是坏的。下面我将从民意调查、焦点小组和网上评论中总结出人们不想吃人工培育肉类的一些主要原因。但我乐观地认为,这项新技术的拥护者可以缓解公众的担忧,让消费者接受人工培育的肉类成为一个令人信服的理由。

‘Cultured meat is not necessary’
While there is increasing awareness of the downsides of factory farming, this knowledge has still not spread to all meat consumers, or at least is not reflected in their purchasing behavior. Factory farming supports what many consider cruel and restrictive practices where animals raised in such farms are subjected to extreme suffering, and estimates suggest that over 99 percent of U.S. farmed animals live on factory farms.

“人工培育的肉不被需要”
虽然越来越多的人意识到工厂化养殖的弊端,但这种认识并没有普及到所有的肉类消费者,或者至少没有反映在他们的购买行为中。工厂化养殖支持了许多人认为的残酷和限制性做法,即在这种养殖场饲养的动物遭受极端痛苦。据估计,99%以上的美国养殖动物生活在工厂化养殖场。

Animal agriculture is also inefficient. Growing and feeding an entire animal for only part of its body is inevitably less efficient than growing just the parts that you want to eat.
Factory farming degrades the environment and contaminates local land and water, in addition to emitting around 14.5 percent of human-induced greenhouse gas emissions worldwide.
The use of antibiotics in farming leads to antibiotic resistance, which could have devastating consequences for human health globally. In 2016, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration reported that over 70 percent of medically important drugs were sold for use in animal agriculture.

畜牧业也是低效的。仅用身体的一部分来喂养和生长整个动物,不可避免地比只生长你想吃的部分效率要低。
工厂化农业破坏了环境,污染了当地的土地和水,此外还排放了全球14.5%的人为温室气体。
在农业中使用抗生素导致抗生素耐药性,这可能对全球人类健康造成毁灭性的后果。2016年,美国食品和药物管理局(fda)报告称,超过70%的重要药物用于畜牧业。

Some people who believe farmed meat is problematic would prefer a plant-based food system. Despite recent hype around veganism, the number of people who don’t eat animal products remains extremely low. Only 2 to 6 percent of Americans identify as vegetarian or vegan. And only around 1 percent of adults identify as vegetarian and report never eating meat. This figure shows little change since the mid-1990s, despite the ongoing activism of the animal rights and environmental movements.

一些认为养殖肉类有问题的人更喜欢植物性食品系统。尽管最近素食主义被大肆宣传,但不吃动物制品的人数仍然非常少。只有2%到6%的美国人认为自己是素食主义者。只有大约1%的成年人认为自己是素食主义者,而且从不吃肉。自上世纪90年代中期以来,这一数字几乎没有变化,尽管动物权利和环境运动一直在进行。

I’d argue that the plant-based solution to factory farming is not a feasible outcome for the foreseeable future. Cultured meat might be. Individuals can still choose to eat a plant-based diet. But for those who are unwilling to give up meat, they can have their steak and eat it too.
‘I’m worried about the animals and farmers’
Some people express concern about the fate of chickens and cows, imagining them abandoned to die or released into the wild.

我认为,在可预见的未来,以植物为基础的工厂化农业解决方案是不可行的。而培育的肉可能行。个人仍然可以选择植物性饮食。但是对于那些不愿意放弃吃肉的人来说,他们可以想怎么吃牛排就怎么吃。
“我很担心动物和农民。”一些人表达了对鸡和牛的命运的担忧,想象它们被遗弃死亡或放归野外。

The time frx for cultured meat renders this consideration moot. Even by optimistic estimates, large-scale production is likely still several years away. As new processes are adopted, the demand for farm animals will slowly decrease. Fewer animals will be bred, thus the animals at the center of these concerns will never exist.

培育肉类的时间框架使得这种考虑毫无意义。即使乐观估计,大规模生产仍可能需要几年时间。随着新工艺的采用,对家畜的需求将慢慢减少。更少的动物将被繁殖,因此处于这些关注中心的动物将永远不会存在。




So what is disgusting appears to be somewhat determined by what is normal and accepted in your community. With time, and exposure to cultured meat, it’s possible that these feelings of disgust will disappear.

所以什么是恶心似乎是由什么是正常的和在你的社区接受多少决定的。随着时间的推移,再加上食用了人工培育的肉类,这些恶心的感觉有可能会消失。



It’s early days, but a number of companies are working to bring cultured meat to the table. As consumers, we have both the right and obligation to be informed about which products we choose to eat. Yes, we should be cautious with any new technology. But in my opinion, the obxtions to cultured meat can’t hold a candle to the potential benefits for humans, animals and the planet.

现在还处于早期阶段,但许多公司正在努力将人工培育的肉类带到餐桌上。作为消费者,我们有权利也有义务知道我们选择吃什么产品。是的,我们应该对任何新技术保持谨慎。但在我看来,反对人工培育肉类不能与潜在的对人类、动物和地球的好处相比。
(评论部分)

Sheila Davis
logged in via Facebook
I learn something new everyday. I’m really not sure whether it would matter or not. When I look at the difference in the taste and texture of the meats from naturally grown animals raised today, it really made make no difference. Meats today compared to the years before the 60s- I will even say 70s - taste somewhat bland - chicken and pork more so. Chickens were a golden yellow as well as their eggs yokes and the taste and smell was sharply chicken - unlike whispers of chicken which we eat today, the same with pork.

我每天都学一些新东西。我真的不确定这是否重要。当我看着今天饲养的自然生长的动物的肉在味道和质地上的不同时,公海堵船:真的没有什么区别。与60年代以前(我甚至可以说70年代之前)的肉类相比,今天的肉类味道略淡——鸡肉和猪肉更是如此。鸡和鸡蛋一样呈金黄色,味道和气味都是鸡的味道和气味——不像我们今天吃的鸡肉,猪肉也是一样。

Beef is not much better, and the ground beef is ridiculous. Those were the days when six blocks down the street you could smell the food and knew what was being cooked. Optimistic people born in the 80s and forward have no idea what untampered meat taste like, something my mother and I used to discuss often. So let them grow the meat in the lab what difference would it make - we are already consuming whatever antibiotics and chemicals they use in the food and on the animals now.

牛肉也好不到哪里去,而且绞碎的牛肉也很可笑。那时候,沿着这条街走六个街区,你就能闻到食物的味道,知道正在煮什么。乐观的80后和乐观的人不知道未经处理的肉是什么味道,这是我妈妈和我经常讨论的。所以让他们在实验室里种肉有什么区别呢?我们已经在消耗他们于食物和动物身上使用的抗生素和化学物质了。

Joe Dirk
You present some logical and accurate counter-arguments to the general aversion of cultured meat. Despite that, I am somehow still not sold.
The picture attached to the article fuels my (illogical) aversion. It looks disgusting! You point out that disgust is in the eye of the beholder, and rightly so. But looking at the picture I cant help but suspect that the texture is completely wrong. Is there a range of textures that would be available, or would we be limited to a ground beef composition, or even worse, ‘pink slime’? Could we really have our ‘steak’ and eat it to? What about the flavor that the bones add, especially for gravies and stews?

你提出了一些合乎逻辑的、准确的论据来反驳对培育肉类的普遍反感。尽管如此,我还是没有被说服。
这篇文章所附的图片激起了我(不合逻辑的)反感。它看起来真恶心!你指出厌恶是在旁观者的眼中,这是正确的。但看着这张照片,我不禁怀疑它的质地是完全错误的。是否有一系列的纹理可供选择,或者我们会被限制在绞碎的牛肉成分中,或者更糟的是,“粉色黏液”?我们真的能吃到我们的“牛排”吗?骨头的味道怎么样,尤其是炖肉和炖菜的味道?

I look forward to seeing more research and progress in this area. The future is always approaching!
Humans have been eating animals for many thousands of years. It will be a difficult task to transition to a form of farming that we have never used before. We are generally reluctant to change, in my opinion.

我期待着在这方面有更多的研究和进展。未来总是在向我们走来!
人类吃动物已经有几千年了。要过渡到一种我们以前从未使用过的农业形式将是一项艰巨的任务。在我看来,我们通常不愿意改变。

i also feel that this will affect the farmers, despite your counter-argument. Perhaps most meat is sold from a handful of front companies - but those companies still rely on the individual farmer to maintain the cattle. And yes, we will need to adapt (such as the taxi companies), but adaptation almost never comes easily. You would have to train farmers to become scientists - quite a career change.

我也觉得这会影响到农民,尽管你反对。也许大部分的肉都是从少数几家挂名公司出售的,但这些公司仍然依赖于个体农场主来饲养这些牛。是的,我们需要适应(比如出租车公司),但适应几乎从来都不容易。你必须训练农民成为科学家——这是一个相当大的职业转变。

Liza Whyatt
“Animal agriculture is also inefficient. Growing and feeding an entire animal for only part of its body is inevitably less efficient than growing just the parts that you want to eat.”
This comment is completely inaccurate. Farming is a business and every part of the body is used whether it is for food (for humans, pets, or plants), clothing (like your leather jacket, or shoes), cosmetics, soaps.

“畜牧业也是低效的。只靠身体的一部分生长和喂养整个动物,不可避免地比只生长你想吃的部分效率要低。”
这句话完全不准确。农业是一门生意,身体的每个部分都被用来制造食物(人类、宠物或植物、衣服(比如你的皮夹克或鞋子)、化妆品、肥皂。

The author also lacks an understanding of human nutrition essential for understanding the broader synthetic meat industry. Nutritional needs vary by season, light exposure (location), sleep patterns, work load, and genetic make up. This is a complex system that we are *just starting to uncover. With this in mind, and a perspective that Mother Nature is intelligent in her design, these meats would need to reflect all parts of the body - nose to tail - since that is what we’ve historically consumed.

作者也缺乏对人类营养的理解,而这是理解更广泛的合成肉类工业所必需的。营养需求因季节、光照(地点)、睡眠模式、工作负荷和基因组成而异。这是一个我们刚刚开始发现的复杂系统。考虑到这一点,以及大自然母亲在她的设计中是聪明的这一观点,这些肉需要反映身体的各个部分——从鼻子到尾巴——因为这是我们历史上吃的东西。

it will be a LONG time before the labs are able to craft something as complex and complete as an entire animal, not to mention as tasty. There is a reason pork belly, crispy (pastured) chicken skin, and grilled salmon tastes so good… it is GOOD for us.

实验室还需要很长一段时间才能制造出像整个动物一样复杂和完整的东西,更不用说美味了。五花肉、酥脆的鸡皮和烤三文鱼味道这么好是有原因的……这对我们有好处。

Beer Ranch
logged in via Google
As one of the farmers that provide the cares for land and cattle 365 days a year, I’d like to ask for some documentation for a number of claims in the article. Specifically, the % of livestock raised on factory farms and how the only parts of the animals used are the ones eaten. In fact 97% of farms in the US are family farms, by USDA definition.I would also recommend people look up how BFS or Bovine Fetal Serum is used by this cell protein industry. I’d also recommend the writer visit a few livestock farms before writing about farms again.

作为每年365天提供土地和牛照料的农民之一,我想要求文章中提到的一系列主张的文件。具体地说,在工厂化农场饲养的牲畜的百分比,以及所使用的动物的唯一部分是如何食用的。事实上,根据美国农业部的定义,美国97%的农场都是家庭农场,我也建议大家看看BFS或牛胎儿血清在这个细胞蛋白产业中是如何使用的。我还建议作者在再次写有关农场的文章之前参观几个畜牧场。

Dustin O'Bryant
logged in via Google
Ultimately it isn’t going to matter if everyone is convinced to go for lab grown meat. Enough people are on board that it is going to be a profitable endeavor, and the end result will be meat that is cheaper, safer, healthier, and better for the environment. Once it is available in grocery stores at a reasonable price it will almost certainly be adopted at a constantly accelerating rate.

最终,如果每个人都被说服去吃实验室培育的肉,那就不重要了。船上有足够多的人,这将是一项有利可图的努力,最终的结果将是肉更便宜,更安全,更健康,对环境更好。一旦它在杂货店以合理的价格出售,它几乎肯定会以不断加快的速度被采用。

From what I can tell, most people who are opposed to it are older, don’t understand the science, are afraid of change, have an illogical aversion to the idea of lab grown meat, and/or are somehow involved with an industry that may be negatively impacted by this. The only ones that I expect will really hold out for long are the ones who are involved with an industry that may be negatively impacted by this, and that is because they have the most rational position…it threatens their livelihood. It is an unfortunate situation in that case, but progress must go on.

据我所知,大多数反对这种做法的人年龄较大,不懂科学,害怕改变,对实验室培育肉类的想法有一种不合逻辑的厌恶,而且/或者不知何故,他们所在的行业可能会因此受到负面影响。我认为,唯一能够真正坚持下去的人,是那些可能会因此受到负面影响的行业人士,因为他们拥有最理性的立场……这威胁到他们的生计。这种情况是不幸的,但必须继续取得进展。